# Generalizations of Fermat’s Little Theorem and combinatorial zeta functions

Everyone who studies elementary number theory learns two different versions of Fermat’s Little Theorem:

Fermat’s Little Theorem, Version 1: If $p$ is prime and $a$ is an integer not divisible by $p$, then $a^{p-1} \equiv 1 \pmod{p}$.

Fermat’s Little Theorem, Version 2: If $p$ is prime and $a$ is any integer, then $a^{p} \equiv a \pmod{p}$.

as well as the following extension of Version 1 of Fermat’s Little Theorem to arbitrary positive integers $n$:

Euler’s Theorem: If $n$ is a positive integer and $(a,n)=1$, then $a^{\phi(n)} \equiv 1 \pmod{n}$, where $\phi$ is Euler’s totient function.

My first goal in this post is to explain a generalization of Version 2 of Fermat’s Little Theorem to arbitrary $n$. I’ll then explain an extension of this result to $m \times m$ integer matrices, along with a slick proof of all of these results (and more) via “combinatorial zeta functions”.